Scenarios assessed by Gupta et al. (2007) [69] indicate that Schedule I emissions are expected to be 25-40% lower than in 1990 by 2020 and 80-95% lower than 1990 emissions by 2020. The only scheduled parties that voluntarily committed to do so are Japan (25% below the 1990-2020 level) and Norway (30-40% below the 1990-2020 level). [70] The 2010 Cancun Agreements provide for voluntary commitments from 76 developed and developing countries to control their greenhouse gas emissions. [145] In 2010, these 76 countries were collectively responsible for 85% of annual global emissions. [145] [146] Emission limit values do not contain emissions from international aviation and shipping. [37] Although Belarus and Turkey are included in Schedule I of the agreement, they do not have emission targets since they were not parties to Schedule I at the time of the adoption of the protocol. [36] Kazakhstan has no objective, but has stated that it wishes to become a contracting party to Schedule I of the Convention. [38] If the supervisory authority finds that a Schedule I country does not meet its emission limit, that country is required to make up for the difference during the second commitment period, plus an additional 30%.

In addition, the country is suspended from transferring transfers as part of an emissions trading programme. [93] The World Bank (2010) [120] stated that the Kyoto Protocol had had little impact on controlling global emissions growth. The treaty was negotiated in 1997, but by 2006 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 24%. [121] The World Bank (2010) also stated that the treaty had provided only limited financial assistance to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change. [120] Article 25 of the Protocol states that “the protocol enters into force on the 90th day following the day at least 55 parties to the convention, including the Schedule I parties, which account for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions of Schedule I countries, have tabled their ratification instruments. Acceptance, approval or membership. [94] The emissions restrictions of the Schedule I parties are edso-pending. [36] Some contracting parties have emission restrictions below the base year level, some have limits at the base year level (no allowed increase above the base year level), while others have limits above the base year level. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement on climate change developed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The protocol encourages 192 parties to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, with many industrialized countries having binding emission reduction targets. Appendix I Contracting parties can use a number of sophisticated “flexibility mechanisms” (see below) to achieve their objectives. Appendix I Contracting parties can achieve their objectives by allocating reduced annual quotas within their limits to the main operators or by allowing these operators to exceed their endowments by compensating for potential overruns through a mechanism agreed by all parties to the UNFCCC, for example. B by purchasing emission allowances from other operators with excess emission credits. As noted above, first-round emission limit commitments are not sufficient to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will require further emission reductions after the end of the Kyoto commitment period in 2012. [24] [26] One per cent of the revenue generated by the Emissions Trading Scheme is spent on a climate change adaptation fund for measures such as mangrove reforestation, dam construction and erosion control in mountainous regions of developing countries.

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