According to the Blue Ventures spokesperson, “Contracts are not transparent and are often unfair, Madagascar has one of the worst contracts in the region.” The lack of power of developing countries in the negotiations seems to explain the poor results of this fisheries agreement. The CFFA and its African partner, CAOPA, have committed in tuna PMOs such as CTOI to establish access systems that give priority to the fishermen who fish the most sustainably and bring the most social and economic benefits to the members of these PMOs in developing countries. The EU should encourage regional thinking on the development of small-scale tuna fishing and encourage the tabling of sustainable development plans for such fishing by Mauritania and Senegal at the CICTA level. These agreements are the result of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed in 1982. This allows countries that do not have the opportunity to fully exploit their fish stocks to sell their surplus to third countries through authorisations for access to their exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in exchange for financial assistance for the development of sustainable fisheries. The EU has also concluded 7 “dormant” agreements with Gabon, Madagascar, Mozambique, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Micronesia and the Solomon Islands. The dormant agreements are intended for countries that have a fisheries partnership agreement that is still in force but is not in force. As a result, EU vessels cannot fish in the waters provided for by the dormant agreements. In 2012, Mauritanian craftsmen enjoyed a great victory: European cephalopod ships were withdrawn from the SFPA. This has allowed the local octopus fishery to skyrocket. Since then, the number of fishermen has doubled and the number of Pirogues has increased by 50%.

In November 2019, a representative of the local artisanal fishery made his argument to the European Parliament by stating that the added value in the artisanal fishing of Mauritanian octopus was eight times greater than that of industrial fishing: in the last protocol, it was agreed that 2% of European catches of small pelagic substances in Mauritania would be landed for human consumption (see Appendix 1 of the protocol, Chapter III: Levities, Article 2″ Taxes in kind”). This has been a great success, as local fish consumption has increased from 4 to 12 kg/year in a few years, which has ensured the food security of local communities, as fish provide the population with affordable and irreplaceable sources of protein and essential nutrients (vitamins and amino acids). The EU should also ensure that these landings continue, provided that the sustainable management of small pelagics is ensured and that the EU agrees with Mauritania on access to small pelagics. This study is not disclosed until two months after the extension of the ue-Madagascar fisheries agreement for the period 2013-2014.

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