A new addition to the USMCA is the inclusion of Chapter 33, which covers macroeconomic policies and exchange rate issues. This is considered important because it could set a precedent for future trade agreements.  Chapter 33 sets out requirements for currency and macroeconomic transparency that, in the event of a breach, would be grounds for litigation under Chapter 20.  The United States, Canada and Mexico currently meet all of these transparency requirements in addition to substantive policy requirements that comply with the international Monetary Fund`s articles.  On November 30, 2018, the USMCA was signed as planned by the three parties at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires.   Disputes over labour rights, steel and aluminum prevented ratification of this version of the agreement.   Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lightizer, and Mexican Under-Secretary of State for North America Jesus Seade officially signed a revised agreement on December 10, 2019, ratified by the three countries on March 13, 2020. The negotiations focused “primarily on car exports, tariffs on steel and aluminum, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.” A provision “prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.”  Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks.
 The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150.  The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).  This bill provides the legal authority for the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Trade Agreement (USMCA), which replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement. In particular, the bill implements provisions that include monitoring and implementation of work and the environment, de minimis levels for U.S. exports, and cooperation among contract members to prevent tax evasion. The agreement between the United States of America, the United States of Mexico and Canada, commonly known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), is a free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the United States in lieu of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
   The agreement has been referred to as NAFTA 2.0 or “New ALEFTA, since many nafta provisions have been introduced and its amendments have been found to be largely incremental. On 1 July 2020, the USMCA came into force in all Member States.